英语中的后置定语,你了解多少? 英语定语后置句

英语中的后置定语,你了解多少?

临淄中学 跃在渊

尽管英语和汉语的句子主要成份均是:主语、谓语、宾语或表语,这基本是一致的。在英语中,定语的位置一般比较固定,单个词作定语时,多置于其所修饰的名词之前;短语和从句作定语时一般置于被修饰的名词之后,我们称之为的后置定语。学生在阅读过程中,往往受到后置定语的影响,在阅读中找不准句子的主干,理解不了句子的意思,影响了对文章的理解,因此,这里我对后置定语进行归纳整理,以便对它有个系统的认识。

一、单个词作定语后置的情况

1、以a-开头的表示状态的形容词,一般在句子中当表语成份,但作定语时须后置,类似的形容词有:alive, asleep, alike, alone. awake,aware, ashamed, adrift, ablaze, absent, afraid,available等如:

He spoke like a manafraid.他说话的时候像是很害怕似的。

Tom was the only boy awake at thattine.那时汤姆是唯一醒着的男孩。

The house ablaze is next door tomine. 那着火的房子就在我家隔壁。

2、部分表示方位、处所、时间副词作定语。如here, there, above, below, upstairs.downstairs. outside, inside,around. today, nearby 等常作后置定语。如:

A boy outside is waiting foryou.

People there are veryfriendly.

The man upstairs is making anoise.

3、形容词修饰复合不定代词时应后置

I have something important to tellyou.

There is nothingserious.

There is nobody suitable for thejob.

4else 只作后置定语,修饰疑问词或不定代词。

When else shall we meet again, ifFriday is not convenient for you?

Ask someone else to help you if Davidis not free.

Who else can we turnto?

5left remaining 都表示有剩下的的意思,但left只作后置定语。如:

There is five minutesleft.remaining应作前置定语。如:

The lady bought a gift for herdaughter as a birthday gift with the remaining 30dollars.

6involved意为有牵连的涉及到的,只作后置定语,如:

the problems involved.

7、有些词既可作前置定语,也可作后置定语。如:

possible, enough,more(另外,附加的)proper

I don’t have wine enough for fivepersons at the moment

=I don’t have enough wine for fivepersons at the moment.

They thought about all the meanspossible= possible means

Today I will have to write twoletters more= two moreletters

8、有些词既可当作前置定语又可当后置定语,但含义不一样。

如:used, concerned,present

All the peoplepresent(在场的)voted for him.

Present situation isserious.(目前的,现在的)

All partiesconcerned(有关的)are present.

Concerned (忧虑的)parents held ameeting.

the method used is veryefficient (运用的,使用的)

This is a usedbike.(旧的)

二、短语作后置定语。

1、介词短语、副词短语、形容词短语等用作后置定语。

The man in the car isJim’s father. (介词短语)

He made a report on modernscience (介词短语)

A friend in need is a friendindeed(介词短语)

I live in a village far fromhere(副词短语)

He cast it a second time, and drew inan old basket full of sand (形容词短语)

2、不定式用作后置定语。如:

Would you like something todrink

What do you plan to do in the year tocome

The building to be built was designedby Mr Wang. =The building which will be built was designed by MrWang. (相当一个定语从句)

3、不定式经常用作一些名词的后置定语,常见的这类名词有way,chance, opportunity, courage,time, week, wish, need, promise, plan, right.如:

You have no right tospeak

If I have the chance to go abroadI’ll never let it go.

4、一般来讲,谓语动词能接不定式当宾语,当这类动词转化为名词时,也接不定式当后置定语。如:

You promised to write usregularly.(不定式当宾语)

You haven’t kept your promise towrite us regularly.(不定式当后置定语)

He planned to start acompany (不定式当宾语)

He told me his plan to start acompany. (不定式当后置定语)

5、分词作定语。单个分词一般作前置定语,而分词短语作后置定语,此时可以转化相应的定语从句。

①The old man has a walkingstick(动名词当定语表示用途)

②Can yon see the falling leaves inthe sky. (现在分词当定语表示动作进行)

③Deer don’t like eating fallenleaves (过去分词当定语表示动作完成)

④The man running on the playground isour English teacher.(现在分词当后置定语,与被修饰词存在主动关系)

=The man who is running on theplaygroundis our English teacher.

⑤Do you know the girl dancing in thecenter?

⑥The food cooked by my mother wasdelicious.(过去分词当后置语与被修饰词存在动作的完成与被动关系)

=The food which was cooked by mymother was delicious.

英语中的后置定语,你了解多少? 英语定语后置句

⑦The building built was designed byMr Warg.

=The building which was built wasdesigned by Mr Wang.

⑧⑨There were over 300 people trappedabove the fire.

⑨The building being built wasdesigned by Mr Wang.(过去分词的进行式作后置定语表示与被修饰词存在动作的被动且正在进行)

=The building which is being builtwas designed by Mr Wang.

三、从句作定语都是后置.一个句子修饰某个名词或代词,我们称之为定语从句,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句,非限制性定语从句常用逗号隔开,表示补充说明。

In the north where it is cold, theygrow wheat.

I will never forget the day, on whichI joined the Party.

I know the only route that leads tothe top of the mountain.

I found some photos of interestingplaces which were not too far away from Cheng du.

The sun, which had hidden all day,now came out in all its splendor.

通过以上我们对后置定语的系统理解和认识,尤其是不定式,分词以及从句当后置定语的领会,应多分析,多朗读这类句子,有利于我们对长句和难句的理解,从而提高我们的阅读能力。

  

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